Released: May 16, 2002
Summer Food Safety: Outdoor Grilling
MANHATTAN, Kan. Ė Grilling, one of the easiest low-fat cooking methods, can be a centerpiece for summertime meals.
"Grilling is a great way to spend time with family and friends," said Karen Blakeslee, Rapid Response Center coordinator with Kansas State University Research and Extension.
While the art of grilling may come with practice, Blakeslee recommended these pointers to enjoy a successful experience.
Bring out the Barbecue - Grills need annual cleaning after winter storage by scouring the grate with a wire brush. Spray the grid with oven cleaner and rinse thoroughly. Before each use, apply non-stick cooking spray to prevent food from sticking to the grill.
Stock up on Charcoal - Quality charcoal briquets light quickly and have a long burn life. Store charcoal in a cool, dry area. For instant-lighting charcoal, keep the bag tightly closed to prevent lighter fluid from evaporating.
Use Proper Tools - Tongs and a spatula help to turn food without piercing it to lose any juices. A vegetable grilling basket holds smaller foods. Other useful utensils include a wire brush for cleaning, long-handled tongs and flame retardant mitts to protect hands.
Get Ready to Grill - Arrange briquets in a pyramid at the bottom of the grill. Add approximately two ounces of lighter fluid and carefully light with a match.
Charcoal should be ready in about 20 minutes, with 70 percent covered with ash and displaying a slight red glow. To estimate the temperature, hold your hand, palm side down, about 6 inches above the coals.
* two seconds - itís hot, about 375 degrees F or more
* three seconds - itís medium-hot, about 350 to 375 degrees F
* four seconds - itís medium, about 300 to 350 degrees F
* five seconds - itís low, about 200 to 300 degrees F
When coals are ready for cooking, spread in a single layer or bank them. Set the grilling grid in place and put on the food.
Food Safety - Blakeslee said food safety should be a priority while grilling. If food is handled or cooked improperly, health risks can dampen the experience. She outlined the following suggestions:
* Keep meat cold until ready to grill. Do not leave it out at room temperature.
* Pre-cooked meats can still be grilled to add authentic flavor and shorten grilling time.
* If starting with frozen products, thaw in the refrigerator or microwave. Grill immediately after thawing in the microwave.
* Do not use the same platter or utensils to handle raw and cooked products.
* Use a meat thermometer to check internal temperatures. Ground meat should be 160 degrees F, poultry at 180 degrees F, poultry breasts at 170 degrees F, pork at 160 degrees F, and steaks at 145 degrees F.
* Once taken from the grill, keep the meat hot until serving in a warming tray or slow cooker.
* Place leftovers in the refrigerator. Discard anything left out more than two hours.
Grilling Safety Tips
* Pick a safe area - Position the grill in a well-ventilated, flat, level surface away from overhangs, deck railings and shrubbery. Keep children and pets away from the grill when in use.
* Handle charcoal carefully - Never add lighter fluid directly to hot coals since flames could travel up the fluid stream. Instead, place several new briquets in a metal can and apply lighter fluid. Transfer the briquets into the pyramid in the grill with pair of long-handled tongs and light with a match. Use proper utensils for safe handling of food and coals.
* Putting out the fire - Place the cover on the grill, close the vents and allow the coals to burn out completely. Let ashes cool for at least 48 hours, and dispose in a non-combustible container.
Additional Grilling Tips
* Before placing food on grilling surface, preheat the grill. Remove charred food debris to reduce exposure to possible cancer-causing substances formed during high heat cooking.
* Avoid fire flare-ups by using lean meats and trimming away all visible fat. Raise the rack to the highest position away from the heat and keep food on one side of the grill and coals or other heat source on the other side.
* Marinades enhance flavors, tenderize and keep foods moist. If you plan to use the remaining marinade later as a table sauce, it must be boiled for at least three minutes to eliminate bacteria.
* Try grilling vegetables and fruits: eggplant, summer squashes, bell peppers, sweet onions, Roma or cherry tomatoes, mushrooms, mangoes, pineapple or peaches. Cut vegetables into half-inch slices or large chunks. Brush with warmed, seasoned oil. Turn only once, and grill until tender. Fruit should be halved with pits removed. Grill with the pulp side down.
* Cook fish in foil packets to retain natural flavors and protect it from smoke and fire.
K-State Research and Extension is a short name for the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, a program designed to generate and distribute useful knowledge for the well-being of Kansans. Supported by county, state, federal and private funds, the program has county Extension offices, experiment fields, area Extension offices and regional research centers statewide. Its headquarters is on the K-State campus, Manhattan.
Karen Blakeslee is at 785-532-1673