K-State Research and Extension News
July 12, 2012
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K-State Kitchen Guide Highlights Successful Substitutions;

Aug. 13 is Early Registration Deadline for ‘Building Better Heifers’ Field Days;

Reports of Tree Borers on the Rise

K-State Kitchen Guide Highlights Successful Substitutions

MANHATTAN, Kan. – A recently updated K-State Research and Extension publication features alphabetical listings for substitutions for more than 100 recipe ingredients.

“Ingredient Substitutions” includes recommended stand-ins for essential items — baking powder, condiments, spices, or dairy products — that may be missing from the cupboard.

“Ingredients typically fulfill specific roles in recipes,” said Karen Blakeslee, the K-State Research and Extension food scientist who recently updated the kitchen guide. “While some results may vary in color or texture, recommended substitutions are typically successful stand-ins and will yield an acceptable product.”

Examples of recommended substitutions:

• Use all-purpose flour or granulated tapioca to replace cornstarch as a thickening agent.

• Substitute plain yogurt or sour milk blended with butter or margarine for sour cream.

Suggested substitutions also provide simple recipes, such as combining tomato sauce, brown sugar, vinegar, ground cinnamon, cloves and allspice for chili sauce, or blending molasses with granulated sugar as a substitution for brown sugar.

To view and download the kitchen guide, go to the K-State Research and Extension Bookstore/Library at Ingredient Substitutions.

A four-page, three-hole punched folder version of the publication (L730 Ingredient Substitutions Chart) is available at local K-State Research and Extension offices or can be purchased for 70 cents from the K-State Research and Extension Bookstore.


Aug. 13 is Early Registration Deadline for ‘Building Better Heifers’ Field Days
  Events are Planned Aug. 28 and 29 in Two Kansas Locations

COLBY, Kan. – Kansas State University will host “Building Better Heifers – Selecting, Growing and Breeding Heifers Using Today’s Science” field days on Aug. 28 in Eureka, Kan. and Aug. 29 in Phillipsburg, Kan.

“Replacement heifer development is a time consuming and expensive process,” said Bob Weaber, cow-calf specialist with K-State Research and Extension. “It pays for producers to think holistically about their development program and tailor it to their production environment. Producers should carefully design a breeding program to produce their replacement heifers, then select and manage those females for optimal growth and body condition for breeding and calving.”

The Aug. 28 field day will be held at Dalebanks Angus at 820 River Rd., Eureka, Kan., 67045, and the Aug. 29 event at Bar Arrow Cattle Co., 26 E. Limestone Rd., Phillipsburg, Kan., 67661.

The event at both locations begins with registration at 4 p.m., and the program starting at 4:30 p.m. Presentations and speakers include:

•        Heifer development systems– Rick Funston, University of Nebraska-Lincoln;
•        Reproductive technologies– Sandy Johnson, K-State;
•        Proper collection of DNA samples – Kara Wilson, Certified Angus Beef and Tonya Amen, American Angus Association;
•        Heifer selection tools – Bob Weaber, K-State;
•        Post-breeding nutrition and early pregnancies – Scott Lake, University of Wyoming; and
•        Healthy heifers to healthy cows – Dale Grotelueschen, veterinarian, Pfizer Animal Health.

The field days are sponsored by K-State Research and Extension, Pfizer Animal Health and Certified Angus Beef.  An evening meal is included in the event. For meal planning purposes, organizers request that all participants RSVP by Aug. 13 by contacting Anna Curry (akcurry@ksu.edu or 620-583-7455), Rachael Boyle (rboyle@ksu.edu or 785-425-6851) or Sandy Johnson (sandyj@ksu.edu or 785-462-6281).  



Reports of Tree Borers on the Rise

MANHATTAN, Kansas – Numerous reports of borer holes in trees have been coming to Kansas State University experts and diagnostic labs since May.

“It’s no real surprise. Unless the weather improves, next year’s borer problems could be even worse,” said Ward Upham, K-State Research and Extension horticulturist.

He explained with three factors:

* Borers are larvae that feed on and live in wood that is well-protected. The insect they become typically emerges in May-August of the following year, ready to lay eggs. What tree owners see after that are all exit holes, not entrances.

* Healthy, vigorous sap flow can drown newly hatched larvae when they try to enter a woody plant. So, borers prefer stressed trees. Unfortunately, central U.S. plants have been on the defensive for the past two or more years (depending on location), due to both drought and heat stress, if not other insect attacks.

* That brief time when the adults emerge and lay eggs is the only time when insecticides can work.

“Added to that,” Upham said, “only a few active ingredients are still labeled for homeowner use. The results can be rather ‘iffy.’ And, the applications can be time-consuming.

“Besides, if an infestation is bad enough, hiring a certified professional might not keep your tree alive. It will be a source of infestation for other plants until it’s chopped and then chipped, burned or hauled away.”

That’s why prevention is the all-round best way to deal with borers, he said. Supplying water through dry periods is vital. Mulching can preserve moisture, keep soil cooler and reduce competition from other plants.

For those who’ve found holes and want to know more, Upham recommends the following websites: “Shade Tree Borers” at and “Insect Borers of Fruit Trees”.


K-State Research and Extension is a short name for the Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, a program designed to generate and distribute useful knowledge for the well-being of Kansans. Supported by county, state, federal and private funds, the program has county Extension offices, experiment fields, area Extension offices and regional research centers statewide. Its headquarters is on the K-State campus, Manhattan.

Story by: Elaine Edwards
K-State Research & Extension News

Contributing writers: Mary Lou Peter, Nancy Peterson and Kathleen Ward