K-State Research and Extension News
PERSPECTIVE is a weekly public affairs program distributed to radio stations throughout the state. 
Click on the title to listen...
By the year 2050, there could be more than 9.5 billion people on the planet.  That increase in the number of mouths to feed means that farmers, worldwide, may have to produce as much as 100 percent more food than they do right now.  And that may be a problem unless some of the mistrust in agriculture is dealt with.  The guest is Charlie Arnot, CEO of the Center for Food Integrity.

We usually think of institutions of higher education in the United States as facilitating the American dream and offering a system of upward mobility.  However, one author and scholar says in the last few decades those institutions have evolved in a way to reinforce or even widen the gaps between people of different socio-economic backgrounds.  Today’s guest, Suzanne Mettler, is author of Degrees of Inequality: How Higher Education Politics Sabotaged the American Dream.

There are currently more senior citizens in the United States than at any other time, and the numbers simply keep growing.  According to one expert on aging, every single day more than ten thousand people turn 65.  In addition, in just three years the need for home health care will increase by some 90 percent.  And in 35 years the number of people that need long term health care is expected to grow from the current 12 million to 27 million.  This elder boom is like nothing we have ever experienced.

- 3/5/2015
It is expected that by the year 2050, the world's population will reach an estimated 9.6 billion people.  This means that the world's farmers will need to produce as much as 100 percent more food than they do now to feed the population growth.  According to the Provost at Kansas State University, the school and its leadership are committed to doing what we can to prevent and address hunger not only around our communities and in the U.S., but across the world.
Guests: Dr. April Mason, Provost of Kansas State University
Dr. Karen Burg, Vice president for research at Kansas State and a Professor of chemical engineering

A report put out in April of last year says that the leading public universities in the United States, “often called flagship universities, do a poor job of ensuring that undergraduate students engage in an intellectually vibrant campus culture and leave with a solid foundation of common skills and knowledge.”  In addition, almost two-thirds of these leading universities have at some point used a nationally normed assess­ment of student progress in core collegiate skills, but only one in four makes those results publicly available.
Guests: Dr. Michael Poliakoff, vice president of policy at American Council of Trustees and Alumni; and Armand Alacbay, director of trustee programs for ACTA.

According to the National Weather Service, in 2013, there were seven weather and climate disaster events with losses exceeding one-billion-dollars each across the United States. That included five severe weather and tornado events, a major flood, and the western drought/heat wave. Overall, these events killed 109 people and had major economic impacts.  Severe weather season will soon be here, and the National Weather service wants you to be prepared.
Guest: Chad Omitt, warning preparedness meteorologist with the National Weather Service office in Topeka.

- 2/13/2015
Americans in general display low levels of financial knowledge and capability, but a new study out of Kansas State University indicates that women are even less financially capable. The gender gap of capability extends across all ages, but is most prevalent among women younger than 35 and older than 55, and the gap increases with age.  Guest: Cliff is an associate professor of personal financial planning in Kansas State's College of Human Ecology and author of a study titled "Financial Knowledge and the Gender Gap.”

- 2/6/2015
Ever since its inception, the Social Security system seems to have been a target.  Despite that, the co-authors of a new book say Social Security works, it is totally funded for two decades, it is supported by Americans all across the social and political spectrum, and Social Security ought to be expanded.  The guests are Nancy Altman, a lawyer, and Eric Kingson, a professor of social work at Syracuse University. 

- 1/30/2015
There is a fair amount of research that indicates many U.S. citizens are not that knowledgeable about local, national, and world affairs.  Two researchers believe that one important way to address the situation begins in the classroom.  And in some cases the effort starts as early as grade school in something called the political classroom.  Very simply put, it is an effort to turn U.S. kids into engaged, knowledgeable citizens.  The guests are authors Diana Hess and Paula McAvoy.

Have you ever wondered about the punishments handed down in criminal trials…are they too severe or not severe enough…who really gets punished and why…and does incarcerating those convicted of a crime really do any good?  According to the International Center for Prison Studies, the United States incarcerates more people than any other country in the world, by some estimates we have over two-and-a-quarter million people behind bars.  According to one author and trial judge, if you spend a good portion of your life sending people to prison, you cannot help but begin to ponder right and wrong…human nature…why we punish and why we forgive.  The guest is Morris Hoffman, author of The Punisher’s Brain: The Evolution of Judge and Jury.

- 1/16/2015
Probably one of the most criticized institutions in the United States today is the media.  It is called too liberal…or maybe too conservative.  And why does the media seem to avoid certain problems and stories?  One media expert says the current problems with and within the media have deep roots.  The guest is author and educator Victor Pickard.

The American Society of Civil Engineers says the United States infrastructure – our highways and bridges, airports, railroads, schools, waste-water systems, clean water availability, and energy production -- is the foundation that connects this nation’s businesses, communities, and people.  But the fact is that our infrastructure is not up to par and needs investment if we are to keep pace with our needs…now and in the future.  On today’s Perspective program, the second of a two-part series examining that infrastructure with the focus today on Kansas.

The American Society of Civil Engineers, the A-S-C-E, says the United States infrastructure – our highways and bridges, airports, railroads, schools, waste water systems, clean water availability, and energy production -- is the foundation that connects this nation’s businesses, communities, and people.  But the fact is that our infrastructure is not up to par and needs investment if we are to keep pace with our needs.  The first of a two-part series looks at both the national infrastructure and the Kansas infrastructure, it poor ratings and what it will cost to bring it up to par.  The guest is Tom Smith, executive director of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

- 12/23/2014

The National Council on Crime and Delinquency says the United States incarcerates the largest number of people in the world.  The International Centre on Prison Studies says data from 2006 showed that the 2.2 million people in prison in the U-S is 153 percent higher than Russia, 505 percent higher than Brazil, 550 percent higher than India, and over 2,000 percent higher than Indonesia, Bangladesh, or Nigeria.  And, in the United States, African Americans are over six times as likely to be incarcerated as whites, and Latinos over twice as likely.  We also imprison women at three times the rate of anyone else in the world.  Maya Schenwar says very simply it is a misnomer to call our prisons correctional institutions.


- 12/19/2014
According to one cyber security expert almost 56 percent of smartphone users will use their device for some form of holiday shopping this year.  That use is not a problem, but the fact that some of these phones may contain malware disguised as an app is a problem.  That app could lead to data theft and identity leaks that could put the user and their private information at risk.  The big issue is that many Americans are sacrificing their privacy for convenience.  The guest is Gary Miliefsky, founder and CEO of SnoopWall-dot-com.

One of the more widely discussed agricultural topics in Kansas these days concerns how to properly create a farm or ranch succession from one generation to another.  This is a very important venture not only for the agricultural families involved, but also for the communities around those farms and ranches.  After the first of the year, Kansas State will host five workshops around the state on succession planning…they will take place at Allen Community College in Iola, Pratt Community College in Pratt, Kansas Farm Bureau Plaza in Manhattan, Flint Hills Technical College in Emporia, and the Kansas State Agricultural Research Center in Hayes.

For the first time in history, humans have exceeded the sustaining capacity of Earth's global ecosystems.  Mankind’s expanding footprint has tremendous momentum, and the explosion of human impact creates a shockwave that threatens ecosystems worldwide for future decades…possibly centuries.  One expert says unfortunately past behavior indicates that as resources grow scarce, humans will escalate their use of what remains instead of managing their consumption. The guest is Walter Dodds, professor of biology at Kansas State University and the author of Freshwater Ecology: Concepts and Environmental Applications.  He researches water quality and aquatic biodiversity, he is an investigator at the Konza Prairie Biological Station and leads the Kansas Ecological Forecasting Initiative.

More than 21 percent of Kansas children, some 40-thousand, live in poverty.  That’s an increase of 22 percent over the past five years.  And policy changes to programs such as Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, known as TANF, have made it more difficult for low-income families and their kids to gain access to the assistance they need.  Now, new recommendations from the Annie E. Casey Foundation propose integrating state and federal employment, education and child care programs for parents and children to create a better life for families.  The guest is Shannon Cotsoradis, president and CEO of Kansas Action for Children.

A new report from the Annie E. Casey Foundation calls for comprehensive efforts to lift kids out of poverty, including delivering high quality early childhood education and providing parents with access to job training and other tools that will enable them to support their families.  The recommendations propose integrating state and federal employment, education and child care programs for parents and children to create better opportunities for families.  The guest is Laura Speer, associate director for policy reform and advocacy with the Annie E. Casey Foundation. 

The world’s demand for meat has increased significantly…due in part to rising income levels globally.  And according to one expert, those increases have not been without criticism, as issues such as animal welfare, the environment, food safety, and antibiotic resistance have been targeted by the media and others.   The guest is Dr. John Pluske, Fulbright Distinguished Chair in Agriculture and Life Sciences at Kansas State University and a Professor in the School of Veterinary and Life Sciences at Murdoch University, Perth Western Australia.

Every year, an estimated 1.3 million women are victims of physical assault by an intimate partner.  Despite those numbers, domestic violence has nothing to do with gender, although women are more likely to be killed by an intimate partner than men.  It has nothing to do with race, ethnicity, income, or does sexual orientation.  Domestic violence can even happen to children.  The guess is Judy Davis, director of the Crisis Center, Incorporated, in Manhattan. 

Hydraulic fracturing, hydro-fracturing, hydro-fracking, or just plain old fracking is under ever-increasing scrutiny and criticism.   According to estimates, some two-and-a-half million fracking operations had been undertaken around the world as of about two years ago, with some saying about a million of those had been done in the United States.  The guest is Susan Brantley, distinguished professor of geosciences in the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences at Pennsylvania State University. She also is director of the Earth and Environmental Systems Institute, and was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2012.

We usually think of institutions of higher education in the United States as facilitating the American dream and offering a system of upward mobility.  However, one author and scholar says in the last few decades those institutions have evolved in a way to reinforce or even widen the gaps between people of different socio-economic backgrounds. In other words, American society is becoming ever more unequal, and dramatically so.  The guest is Suzanne Mettler, author of Degrees of Inequality: How Higher Education Politics Sabotaged the American Dream.  She is also the Clinton Rossiter Professor of American Institutions in the Government Department at Cornell University, a fellow at the Century Foundation, and on the board of the Scholars Strategy Network.

- 10/16/2014
The food problems faced by India are not unique.  For those experts looking ahead to feeding an ever-growing world population, there is concern about the problems faced by India and more that could lead to a global shortfall of food between now and 2050. According to one expert, their fears are based in part on the projected growth in global population, the impact of improved wealth, and the impact of urbanization on the available land and labor to produce crops.   The guest, David Everitt, is the retired president of John Deere's Agriculture and Turf Division – North America, Asia, Australia, and Sub-Saharan and South Africa, and Global Tractor and Turf Products.  Prior to his retirement, he also had enterprise-wide responsibility for Information Technology and the Intelligent Solutions Group.

War, no matter what war, is a brutal endeavor.  And for those sent into that brutality it is often difficult to make any sense or bring any meaning out of the chaos.  The United States sent the young men and women of its military to fight in both Iraq and Afghanistan, countries many cannot even find on a map.  According to one veteran, “The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are as much every U.S. citizen's wars as they are the veterans' wars." The guest is Phil Klay, who served in Iraq, is the author of Redeployment.  He is a veteran of the U.S. Marine Corps where he served in Iraq’s Anbar Province from 2007 to 2008 as a Public Affairs Officer.

Over the past thirty years the income gap between the rich and poor has gotten wider and wider.  Unfortunately, as the income gap widened, so did the educational opportunity gap.  Despite these gaps, two experts on education feel there are ways to increase the educational opportunities for children all across the country. The guests are Richard Murnane, co-author of Restoring Opportunity: The Crisis of Inequality and the Challenge for American Education and the Thompson Professor of Education and Society at the Harvard Graduate School of Education.  Also, Greg Duncan, co-author of Restoring Opportunity, and a distinguished professor in the Department of Education at the University of California, Irvine.

In October of 2013, former New York mayor Michael Bloomberg, hedge fund magnate Tom Steyer, and former Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson funded an independent examination of the risks created by climate change.  That report, called “Risky Business,” found that climate change could end up costing the United States’ economy hundreds of billions of dollars by 2050.  The guest is Mark Schapiro is the author of Carbon Shock: A Tale of Risk and Calculus on the Front Lines of a Disrupted Global Economy.  He is also an adjunct professor at the University of California-Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism and at the Monterey Institute of International Studies.

What does it mean for a parent to be involved in a child’s education?  A lot of research indicates there is a definite link between parental involvement and student achievement in school.  But, how do we go about defining parental involvement?  The majority of parents feel they are more important than the school itself in whether a child learns.  And the majority of teachers feel they would rather work in a school that has a lot of parental involvement.  But the question remains, just what is parental involvement?  Today's guest is Jean Johnson, a Senior Fellow and Special Adviser for Public Agenda, a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization that helps leaders and citizens navigate divisive, complex issues and work together to find solutions. 

If one is to believe the latest numbers it takes about a billion dollars to get elected president of the United States.  It only takes about 10-million dollars if you wish to be a U.S. senator…and the price drops to around a million dollars to become a member of the U.S. House of Representatives.  This stems from the fact that a small elite groups of donors…super PACs…and corporations are now the power brokers in American politics.  One author and law professor feels this change will affect both our democracy and our system of capitalism.

According to a new survey done by Inside Higher Ed and Gallup, many campus chief financial officers lack confidence in the sustainability of their colleges' business model over the next decade.  At the same time, the CFOs seem unwilling to take cost-saving measures that might ignite campus controversy.  The survey is based on the responses of chief financial officers at 438 colleges and universities.  The guests are Scott Jaschik, editor at Inside Higher Ed, and Dr. Kirk Schulz, president of Kansas State University.

It’s reported that in their lifetime, as many as 25-percent of women will say they have been sexually assaulted.  But one expert on the subject feels those numbers are wrong…very wrong.  He says no one addresses one of the most serious elements of sexual assault — a failure to obtain consent.  And, the average person does not relate to the importance of needing to have permission before engaging in an intimate act with another person.

- 8/22/2014
What does one do when slave ownership is part of the family history?  Is it important to deal with that legacy or is it something to simply leave in the past?  For one white man it became necessary to confront his family’s history as slave owners… a history that is a mixture of brutality and a little bit of kindness that shines a light into a sad era of American history.

As migrants continue to cross or try to cross the U.S. border from Mexico, most news stories see the situation as simply a U-S border crisis or a domestic issue.  Very few stories look past our border to see that we are not alone in trying to deal with desperate migrants wanting to enter the country.  And, very few stories have looked at the numbers and faces of the many who have disappeared trying to make that journey.

The U.S. Constitution requires that every ten years there be a count of the U.S. population.  And since the first census was taken it has become evident there is an ever-increasing need for not only more and different information, but also for a change in how that information is gathered.  One of the problems concerns a discredited relic of 18th-century science, the “five races of mankind,” which lives on in the efforts of the census bureau.

The number of Americans infected with the mosquito-borne virus chikungunya has increased significantly and the virus has now been found in mosquitoes in the United States.  In addition, at least 300 travel-related cases of chikungunya have been reported in 31 states. On today’s Perspective: the thoughts of one of the world’s leading researchers of the virus, who believes that many more people are at risk of becoming infected.

The Annie E. Casey Foundation has just released the 25th edition of its annual KIDS COUNT Data book.  The yearly effort uses 16 indicators in four areas to examine the trends in how kids in the United States are faring…economic well-being, education, health, and family and community.  The good news is that children continued to show improvement in the areas of education and health.  However, economic progress still lags, even after the end of the recession.

- 7/18/2014
For some time the stories of soldiers returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder have filled the news.  For one scholar those stories on P-T-S-D merely haunt the veneer of a much deeper problem for American society.  On today’s Perspective program two experts take different approaches to P-T-S-D, not just in its diagnosis and treatment, but also in what it means to our national self-image.

The United States puts more of its young people behind bars than does any other industrialized nation.  In Kansas, over a thousand kids are currently in the custody of the state Department of Corrections.  And, one child advocate says to keep Kansas kids safe and hopeful, the state must reduce the incarceration of youth and reinvest funding in successful alternatives.

The United States incarcerates more of its young people than does any other industrialized nation.  And of those in state facilities, more than 40-percent are in prison for low-level, low-threat offenses…such things as technical violations of probation, drug or alcohol possession, minor property offenses, and truancy.  Throwing these kids into a juvenile institution costs the United States some 5-billion dollars a year…but the costs go far beyond just dollars.

- 6/26/2014
If you are planning to be outdoors in the coming weeks and months, a couple of experts are warning to be extra cautious when it comes to ticks.  In fact, in some areas of the state tick exposure can truly be massive, with the possibility of encountering dozens, even hundreds of the little pests.  And these are pests that pose very real dangers for humans and animals, alike.